KRONOS is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of titanium dioxide and has been operating as an international company for more than 90 years. The group. KRONOS – Best in class for industrial coatings. KRONOS safety data sheet. Tap for sound. Learn more about KRONOS on KRONOS® is a rutile pigment that can be used universally and provides the highest weather resistance performance for the most demanding coatings. I.
|Published (Last):||5 December 2004|
|PDF File Size:||1.45 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||16.37 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In the form of a fine powder, it is used as white pigment in many application systems such as paints, plastics, paper and building materials. As for every particle sizing method, besides the physical principles applied, the decision as to how to measure the particle size and its distribution is somewhat arbitrary and generally restricted by practicality aspects.
J Miner Mater Charact Eng. The cases of krronos 1 and 2 give rise to a rim of lower intensities at the particle edges. Purwin are gratefully acknowledged for their untiring efforts in preparing and measuring numerous samples in order to establish the method presented. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The boundaries are detected reasonably well for the counted particles.
An automated protocol macro for image post-processing and particle detection was developed.
The milling beads are removed after the mixing process. The first step ensures comparability, not only within the set of images of one sample, but also between different samples or even between samples measured on different instruments with varying detector settings or noise levels.
KRONOS, Inc. Products
Preferred fields of application for rutile pigments are coatings, paints, plastics and building materials, whereas anatase pigments are mainly used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or food.
Experimental The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST [ 22 ]. The chloride process leads to formation of rutile phase particles due to the high temperatures of the combustion process. Sample preparation A well-prepared sample is the basis for reliable evaluation of the size distribution of a pigment. This is the consequence of a rigorous procedure, which primarily targets reliability: A highly reproducible, statistically tested method for the sizing of pigment-grade rutile and anatase is established.
Are you a distributor who is interested in being listed here? In other words, a robust, reproducible and statistically reliable method is presented, which leads to a number-based size distribution of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, for example, and therefore allows reliable classification of this material according to forthcoming regulations. Imaging conditions and image post-processing for pigment sizing for a rutile pigment; a original image superimposed with the outlines of the finally evaluated particle sections after grey-value and shape filtering; b unified image after noise reduction and shading correction; c binarised image after application of a watershed transform and connectivity filter; d filtered image b masked with binarised image c ; automated detection applied to image d.
A morphological particle separation filter, the watershed transform, is applied to the binary image. The high area density of the pigment in all images ensures that constant conditions for the automated post-processing and detection procedure are assured.
Each pigment was prepared several times according to the procedure described kronnos the experimental section. Stereologic correction has not been performed, and is not feasible for this application [ 1520 ]. A combination of both values has proven adequate for grey-value filtering.
KRONOS® by Kronos International, Inc. – Paint & Coatings
The comparability is sufficient, as long as the penetration depth of the electrons, which is determined by the kdonos voltage, remains constant. The titanium tetrachloride is purified by distillation and then transformed into solid TiO 2 in a combustion process. The detection of particles sectioned close to the centre of mass or below the centre of mass is precise, both cases are labelled with a 3 in Fig.
A reliable method for sizing constituent particles in pigment-grade titanium dioxide; pp. The experimental procedures described below are in full agreement with the practical guide for particle size characterization published by NIST 230 22 ]. The procedure was realised with the commercial software package “analysis” from Olympus-SIS. The first preparation run included four samples, labelled Ra01 through Ra04 for the rutile pigment and Aa01 trough Aa04 for the anatase pigment.
A strong demand for reliable characterization methods of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations concerning the classification of nanomaterials.
Moreover, they illustrate the difficulty with particle detection in projection images in the event of overlapping particles. The standard error of the method is shown to be below 2 nm for all measured quantities, the relative coefficient of variation being below 1. Uncounted particles labelled with a 3 are filtered out as non-primary particles due to their shape. However, 22360 method has several limitations, which also need to be addressed and discussed here.
The typical obstacles in the characterization of industrial materials, such as irregular particle shapes [ 11 ], a broad size distribution [ 12 ] and strong aggregation and agglomeration effects [ 13 — 14 ], have not been addressed successfully.
Feret particles mean std. The section through the particles can in principle be located close to the centre of mass, in which case the section gives the maximum area along the viewing direction for a convex particle konos 3 in Fig.
One of the most important properties of titanium dioxide is its UV absorption, which protects human skin against sunburn and skin cancer.
Speaking of visible light, a mean wavelength of nm is reasonable to assume. A magnification of Summary A strong demand for reliable characterization methods of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations krlnos the classification of nanomaterials. This is attributed to a less regular shape as a consequence of the production process. However, the high reproducibility of the proposed method will certainly allow comparison with any other sizing method, as long as a reference or standard for this purpose is present.
J Volcanol Geotherm Res. This website provides links to other websites owned by third parties. As the first selective decision, the present study uses polished sections in which overlapping particles are ruled out. Journal List Beilstein J Nanotechnol v.